# Causal Interventions

If we want to reduce inequality, we want to know the effect of an **intervention**: what would happen if some treatment went differently?

As a running illustration, this section considers the rapid expansion of higher education over the 20th century. We will discuss how completion of a college degree causally increases economic outcomes, especially for students unlikely to finish college.

This material draws on the following book:

Brand, Jennie E. 2023. Overcoming the Odds: The Benefits of Completing College for Unlikely Graduates. Russell Sage Foundation.

Below are slides on

- education and the definition of causal effects (Apr 23)
- statistical modeling for causal effects (Apr 30)